(10.) Guido Boniface VIII
as the one who turned him back to his old bad ways: "mi rimise ne le prime colpe" (Inf.
So we saw the actor look back over the first few centuries of the Dyer lineage, from his Viking forebears - "them what wore the funny hats" and "loved a good tear up" - to France's King Louis IX, who was canonised by Pope Boniface VIII
King Philip IV of France wrote to his agents in Rome, commanding them to ask Pope Boniface VIII
to view William Wallace favourably.The letter PROVESWALLACE played a role in the turbulent politics of medieval Europe, when the Pope was trying to encourage peace between England and France, and to challenge England's claim to control Scotland."
The community later became a target when conflict broke out between Pope Boniface VIII
and the Colonna family [c.
Augustine was declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Boniface VIII
242) that shaped both the attack on Boniface VIII
and the trial of the Templars.
Because the King of France (Philip IV) was taxing the Church to help finance his wars, Boniface VIII
decided to declare that kings were subordinate to the power of the Church.
The Sicilian Guiscards' treatment of Pope Gregory VII and the French king Philip IV's brutalizing of Pope Boniface VIII
come to mind.
Jennifer Petrie, in a recent Lectura Dantis, gives the often quoted reasons for Guido's punishment the account by the fourteenth-century chronicler Riccobaldo da Ferrara, according to whom Pope Boniface VIII
asked Guido for help to sack the city of Palestrina, the stronghold of the Colonna, Boniface's enemy.
In a later dispute between Pope Boniface VIII
and King Philip IV of France over the king's imposition of taxes on the clergy, Boniface wrote his famous decree, Unam sanctam, claiming papal supremacy in the temporal sphere.
Celestine's successor, Boniface VIII
, feared that having another properly elected pope at large, even though that pope had resigned, could prove a threat.
The last pope to resign -- Celestine V in 1294 -- was locked up and perhaps killed off by his successor Boniface VIII
and there is no record of the two ever meeting post-resignation.