These microscopes operate by measuring the fluorescent light that some compounds emit naturally or the light emitted by artificial fluorophores
, and by exploiting various quantum properties of the fluorophore
, can deliver a resolution smaller than the one imposed by the diffraction limit.
Various disorders including congenital anomalies, developmental delays and malignant disorders are routinely tested by conventional karyotyping.1 Whereas, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) utilizes a fluorophore
labeled DNA probe that specifically binds to nucleic acid sequence of interest.
Conditions for Fluorescence Imaging in Confocal Microscopy Channel Fluorophore
Used Excitation Filtered Image in This Study Laser, nm Emission, nm Display Color 405-nm DAPI 405 455-515 Blue 488-nm Alexa Fluor 488 488 500-550 Green 561-nm Alexa Fluor 594 561 580-650 Red 633-nm Alexa Fluor 647 633 660-750 Red Abbreviation: DAPI, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole.
Advances in near infrared (NIR) imaging technology have expanded the use of fluorescence imaging in live surgery, with indocyanine green (ICG) being the most widely used fluorophore
. NIR/ICG imaging has been used in various aspects of oncological and reconstructive operations, including identification of tumours for resections, assessment of vascular anastomosis and tissue perfusion, and lymph node dissections [1-5].
Herein, we report a highly sensitive fluorogenic Cys probe (1) by installing the recognition moiety of 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonyl ester (DNBS) onto a coumarin fluorophore
. Coumarin and its derivatives are popular fluorescent reporters due to their high photostability, excellent biocompatibility, and high quantum yield [41-43].
While unexpected reasons for fluorescence increase during the assay can exist, such as nonspecific nuclease activity degrading probes and releasing active fluorophore
for detection, the kinetics of such processes generally looks quite different from an actual true positive with its exponential and plateau (sigmoidal) curve.
D-glucose is modified by the covalent attachment of the 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazolyl fluorophore
to create 2-NBDG, a modification which has only minor effects on its uptake properties as, similar to D-glucose, uptake of 2-NBDG occurs through glucose transporters (GLUTs) and with comparable [K.sub.M] values to D-glucose .
A fluorescent chemical compound, called a "fluorophore
", is added to one end of the probe and a "quencher" is added at the other.
Slide images are acquired using a microarray scanner with appropriate settings for the fluorophore
KEY WORDS: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluorophore
, Deepwater Horizon, Callinectes sapidus megalopae
The authors used a special set of fluorescence probes to measure the transfer of the emission energy of one fluorophore
to the fluorophore
of its related pair in a technique called the Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET).
Fluorescence emission spectra from the reference solutions were measured over a wide range of fluorophore