defendants distributed software products that allowed users to
In the wake of Sony and Grokster
, courts have interpreted the
Napster was quickly followed by other platforms such as Gnutella, Grokster
, Kazaa, and BitTorrent, as well as "pirate" resources such as The Pirate Bay and the dark web.
(86) Napster's successors, such as Grokster
and KaZaa avoided any centralized monitoring or control point in their peer-to-peer architectures, adopting more fully distributed designs that dispersed not only content but also indexing among multiple network nodes.
, (59) an article supplied with intent to induce infringement is an article that infringes.
The accused copyright infringers, Grokster
and StreamCast, ran a peer-to-peer file sharing systems whose primary uses were to exchange copyrighted music among users without permission from the copyright holders.
Everingham explained that while there was some success in fighting the early file sharing entities such as Napster and Grokster
, modern BitTorrent technologies have made it harder for film and television producers to protect themselves from illegal downloads.
David Harrison, The P2P File Sharing War After Grokster
: It Feels Like
Court then chose to develop an altogether new theory of
claims," citing suits against Sony and Grokster
Consequently, Aereo now finds itself in the same dustbin of history as its equally inefficient comrades Aimster, Grokster
, Morpheus, KaZaA, LimeWire, Hotfile, isoHunt, and, more recently, Grooveshark.