From the graph, it can be seen that the used approximation does not follow the correct slope of the transition between pass-band
and stop-band region under frequency of 100 Hz because the approximation ceases to be valid anymore.
where [c.sub.1], [c.sub.2] and [c.sub.3] are coefficients determined by nonlinear curve fitting by minimizing the pass-band
error between 1st order Butterworth filter and the (1 + [beta]) order fractional low-pass filter responses.
Therefore, (11) describes a kind of FIR moving average-based filter that provides no distortion effects in the phase of the signal in the whole filter pass-band
. Replacing (11) by [L.sub.1] in (9) and taking into account a number J of iterations, it can be rewritten as 
In the design process, conventional low-pass to band-pass frequency transformation is integrated with the simplified real frequency technique to construct double pass-band
It is observed that the notch band does not vary significantly with the variations in [D.sub.g]; however, the variations in the level of reflection coefficient [S.sub.11] are important in pass-band
near 10 GHz as shown in Figure 5.
By using techniques like cascade configurations, incidence at grazing angles or excitation coupled Bragg modes within the LC film, the device can be configured for high transmission flat-top narrow pass-band
filters, steep amplitude modulators or broadband pure phase modulators.
The filter produced no vignetting or pass-band
shift across the entire image, which enabled me to stitch together seamless mosaics of the entire Sun.
The creation of this coupling in the mentioned resonator will create a notch in the ultrawide pass-band
. Figure 23 shows the structure of this with its values.
It can be seen that the fabricated UWB BPF has a pass-band
from 3.1-10.9 GHz as we expected.
It also depicts that the dual pass-band
(Bluetooth/UWB) and dual band-notch characteristics of the proposed antenna are unaffected.