Fibroblasts produce collagen, fibronectin, and proteoglycans
to form a structure that allows healing to occur.
This tripeptide also increases the expression of decorin and lumican - two important proteoglycans
that support the formation of new collagen fibrils, increasing their quality and strength with a visibly re-modelled effect.
The activity of these new branches is stifled by inhibitory molecules called proteoglycans
(1,5) It has already been specified that TGF-[beta] has a pro-atherogenic property via its effects on the synthesis and structure of proteoglycans
. TGF-[beta] in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) can induce the expression of proteoglycans
and the elongation of their glycosaminoglycan chain via both canonical and non-Smad signaling, which enhances binding to low-density lipoproteins and traps them in the vessel wall.
Adhesion receptor families such as integrins, syndecan, glypican membrane proteoglycans
, and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) are present in sponges and throughout the Metazoa [12-15].
Both native and biochemistry-synthesized form of LPP have an effect on promoting the production of collagen type II and proteoglycans
in human intervertebral disc  and other cartilaginous cells in vitro [17, 18], which make it an alternative for cartilage regeneration medicine.
In intervertebral disc cells, IL-1 stimulated the degradation of extracellular matrix (mainly proteoglycans
and type II collagen) .
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans
(CSPGs), including the lecticans aggrecan, versican, neurocan, and brevican, are joined to the hyaluronic acid polymer through "link" proteins including cartilage link protein (Crtl1).
Iozzo, "Biological functions of the small leucine-rich proteoglycans
: from genetics to signal transduction," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Researchers believe AU-011's high tumor specificity and targeting capability, due to its ability to selectively bind to heparan sulfate proteoglycans
on the surface membrane of tumor cells, may be key to avoiding damage to the main ocular structures and preserving patients' vision.
Specific topics include glycosyltransferases and glycan-processing enzymes, proteoglycans
and sulfated glycosamingoglycans, the discovery and classification of glycan-binding proteins, glycans in acquired human diseases, and the chemoenzymatic synthesis of glycans and glycoconjugates.