They are of course essential clues if the author of the Vakyapadiya and Mahabhasyadipika also composed the Saddhatusamiksa; but even if the Saivas
' attribution of the Samiksa to Bhartrhari is spurious, these passages are still worth examining since they could have been one of the bases for this wrong attribution.
(63) As a concrete example, Michael Vickery has shown that King Jayavarman I (c.657-80 CE), said to be a 'portion' (amsa) of Siva, (64) and his immediate successors, also Saivas
, made real efforts to unify Zhenia under their control.
Together with Balabhadra and Subhadra, the wooden image Jagannatha is claimed to be the Jina of the Jainas, Adi Buddha of the Buddhists, Rudra of the Saivas
, Bhairava of the Saktas,Visnu of the Vedantin Vaisnavas, Krsna of the Bengal Vaisnavism and Nilamadhava (bluestoned Narayana) of the tribals.
(50) Brahman's state as pure awareness can combine with its actionlessness in this theology because the theology is grounded in a broader philosophy of mind in which cognition is held to be a passive reception of information; unlike non-dual Saivas
, non-dual Vedantins hold that to be aware of something is different from to act, and that even when subject and object dissolve, awareness can still remain as a quiescent state of being (Potter 1981: 92-93).
The Pallavas appear to begin as a tolerant bunch from a religious point of view, supporting Vaisnavas, Saivas
, and possibly Jains and Buddhists as well.
Both critics overlook how von Stietencron's generalizations are balanced by the carefully researched first part of his article which, significantly, reveals that Saivas
in pre-Muslim South India saw themselves as fundamentally different from other Hindu traditions.
There already were Saivas
who disregarded rules of caste purity and "untouchability" in social intercourse.
For Tamil Saivas
, the Tevaram poems, attributed to Tirunanacampantar, Tirunavukk'aracu cuvamikal (Appar), and Cuntaramurtti (seventh-ninth centuries) and sung by otuvar in Saiva
temples throughout Tamil Nadu, are a fundamental canon, often equated with the Veda.
The significant letters used in the poetic figures are: a, u, m, n(a), m(a), c(i), v(a), y(a), which when properly combined spell out om nama civayame 'hail, homage to Siva'.(36) Known as pancaksara mantra, it is considered among Saivas
to be the most potent mantra.
When we describe the absolute in this way, it does appear that the concrete multiplicity of awareness is not alien to it, but is, so to speak, its manner of being.(37) In the same way, it would make eminent sense for Abhinava to suppose that an aesthetic mode would figure in the very statement of the absolute principle itself.(38) Of course, the mere fact of concrete awareness is the absolute only in a sense; the mundane is the mundane, and we must make a major effort to acquire the absolute--or at least the sense of the absolute.(39) In this, the Saivas
and the Advaitins do not disagree.