Because its anemochory
dispersion, attraction of fauna, fire resistance and regrowth capacity, this is a highly-recommended species for the initial composition of the reforestation in degraded areas (Rossatto and Kolb, 2010; Lorenzi, 2014; Machado et al., 2015).
Wind dispersal (anemochory
) is often cited as the most common dispersal strategy for climbers, and increases relative to animal dispersal, especially in dry forests (Gentry, 1991).
Such calyces may be well adapted for anemochory
(Dizkirici et al., 2015), as they are in the Central Asiatic genus Hymenocrater (Ryding, 2001) or the shrub Scutellaria mexicana of the southwestern USA.
(FV) life form: (A) tree, (L) climbers and (H) herbaceous; (CS) successional category: (P) pioneer, (Si) early secondary, (St) late secondary and (C) climax; (SD) dispersion syndrome: (Ane) anemochory
, (Aut) autochory, (Zoo) zoochory and (SC) unrated.
Ramana, "Floral biology, psychophily, anemochory
and zoochory in Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and the Robins (Asteraceae)," Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, vol.
In arid and semi-arid regions, the abiotic syndromes (anemochory
and autochory) grow in importance, as several studies carried out on the caatinga have demonstrated (MACHADO et al., 1997; GRIZ; MACHADO, 2001; BARBOSA et al., 2002, 2003).
For species with different fruit types, specific adaptations and seed size [44-46], dispersal methods included anemochory
, mammalichory, and myrmecochory on the foreland of Glacier-BSl.
The seed characteristics such as small size, light weight, papery and winged nature are adapted for anemochory
. As the study site is windy, anemochory
is very effective, dispersing seeds up to 400 m away from the parental site.
Angiosperms have evolved a multitude of external dispersal adaptations, including wind (anemochory
), water (hydrochory), animal (zoochory), and self-dispersal (autochory; Fenner, 1985).
Ridley (1930) recognized anemochory
(dispersal by wind), hydroehory (dispersal by water) and zoochory (dispersal by animals) as the three primary dispersal syndromes.