The general initiating factor in the inflammatory process of balanoposthitis
is the lack of aeration in an uncircumcised male, with resulting irritation and inflammation (Porche, 2007).
All the children who had circumcision for presumed LS diagnosis were symptomatic: 48 (75%) ballooning of the foreskin, 42 (66%) straining, 28 (44%) spraying, 9 (14%) urinary retention, 9 (14%) history of UTIs and 23 (36%) had recurrent balanoposthitis
. Out of the 64 patients 33 patients failed medical treatment (4-6 weeks of topical steroids then ended up with circumscion.
2 male patients had diabetic balanoposthitis
. Post renal transplant patients on immunosuppressive therapy were associated with oral candidiasis to an extent of 3.3%.
It is also associated with balanoposthitis
, chronic prostatitis and acute epididymitis in men, (11) with urethritis, cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes in women, (11) and HIV acquisition in both sexes.
During 24 weeks of treatment, 2 (5.3%) male patients experienced bacterial balanoposthitis
, which is a known side effect of SGLT2 inhibitors, but these were transient and recovered soon.
In the male reproductive tract, fungus causes urethritis, balanoposthitis
, ulcers, pseudotumor, orchitis and prostatitis (7, 9, 10).
Out of total 178 STI patients, the commonest STI was balanoposthitis
(n=65, 36.5%) followed by genital scabies (n=31, 17.4%), genital herpes (n=19, 10.7%,), venereal warts (n= 15, 8.4%), nongonococcal urethritis (n= 14, 7.9%) and chancroid (n=12, 6.7%).
This review describes the association of balanoposthitis
A 56-year-old non-insulin dependent diabetic man initially presented with paraphimosis and candidal balanoposthitis
. The treatment was successful and circumcision was planned, but the patient failed to return for surgery.
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is an important pathogen of cattle, associated with a variety of clinical manifestations including respiratory disease (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis), genital disorders (infectious pustular vulvovaginitis or infectious pustular balanoposthitis
), transient infertility and abortions in cattle (1).
The main indications for circumcision are recurrent balanoposthitis
due to pathologic phimosis and recurrent urinary tract infections besides the social and religious reasons.1,4,5 Normal foreskin is non retractable at birth and is referred as physiologic phimosis".
vaginalis can cause urethritis characterized by urethral discharge and dysuria, balanoposthitis
, prostatitis, cystitis and epididymo-orchitis (5, 10).