(23) Common to these studies is that the modeling has incorporated the beach width
or volume at the cliff base considering that such beach characteristics can represent the effect of beach sediment that may increase erosion working as an abrasive or halt it acting as an obstacle.
Indeed, a gradual decrease in the beach width
and recession of the coastal dune forest have continued in recent decades [17.31].
The following parameters of the beach and PBD were measured: the beach width
and height (m), the width and height of the PBD western slope (m), the top width (m), and the width and height of the eastern slope (m).
Wide beaches provide venues for various recreational activities, and we show in this paper that many beach users derive benefits from improved beach width
In 2010, human activity was negligible, beach width
had increased by 50% after dunes were washed away.
To examine changes in the overall structure of the beach, I measured the beach width
and slope from the water to the high tide line at all sequential markers four times (every 18 days) during the study.
Loopholes in Florida's coastal-building laws allow development to the seaward-most "line of construction," regardless of erosion rates or beach width
. A series of regulatory loopholes to accommodate private-property rights even allows homes to be built seaward of the 30-year erosion line--the area coastal regulators anticipate will be underwater before an average mortgage can be retired.
"Bulkheads and seawalls may accelerate beach erosion by reflecting wave energy off the facing wall, impacting adjacent property owners as well," writes Leatherman, adding that such structures along retreating shorelines eventually cause diminished beach width
and even loss.
This apparently is a long-term trend, since even the most violent storms in 2001 and 2005 have not affected the beach width
. The total width of the dry beach is up to 100 m.
and cross-sectional area data are extracted from beach profiles.
Other variables that influence sand transport patterns are wind direction, surface moisture, ground-freezing, snow, ice and beach width
. Despite considerable constraints, foredune growth was measured at 1.9-5 [m.sup.3] [m.sup.-1] yea[r.sup.-1], with yearly deposition at some foredune locations exceeding 30 cm.
Instead, he suggests a multi-pronged approach, consisting of raising the beach to about 6.5 feet above the high-water level and extending the beach width
by no less than 320 feet from the shoreline.