American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) guidelines were followed to perform proximate and ultimate analyses of the coal, whereas Ballistic bomb calorimeter was used to investigate calorific value
Analytical data demonstrates moisture ranging from 6.4 to 7.8%; volatile matter from 41.5 to 45.3%; fixed carbon from 41 to 48.8%; ash from 6.6 to 7.6%; Calorific value
from 5900 K cal/Kg to 6350 Kcal/Kg, Carbon from 76.9 to 80.2% and sulphur ranges from 3.8 to 4.3%.
In addition to elemental composition, other important properties of coal, such as ash content, ash fusion temperature, or even calorific value
, which has a complicated relation to elemental composition, are calculated on the basis of LIBS spectra using multivariate analysis methods [8-10].
Although the calorific value
of Hely-Hutchinson's letter is about a quarter of that of petrol burned stoichiometrically with air, when highly compressed it would detonate.
The net calorific value
([W.sub.n-] kcal/100 g) of the carcasses was calculated using Atwater net equivalents, from the following formula: [W.sub.N] = 4 * B + 9 * T + 4 * W [kcal/g] , where B is the protein content in a sample, g/100 g; T is the fat content in a sample, g/100 g; W is the carbohydrates content in a sample, g/100 g; 4, 9, and 4 are Atwater net equivalents for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, respectively, kcal/g.
Comparing the net calorific value
of bio diesel with diesel from (Fig.4) the calorific value
of biodiesel is slightly <the diesel and very close to ASTM standardized value .
The charcoal was ground and used for the determination of: moisture content, according to the standard NBR 14929 (ABNT, 2003), gross calorific value
, according to the standard DIN 51900 (DIN, 2000) and the proximate analysis according to the standard ASTM 1762 (ASTM, 2013).
Bomb calorimeter is used to find higher calorific value
of solid and liquid fuels.
On net calorific value
(NCV) basis, the new gas price for October 1, 2015 to March 31, 2016 came to USD 4.24 per mmBtu as compared to USD 5.18 previously.
Natural gas prices, as per the formula approved by the government in October last year, will fall to $ 3.82 per million British thermal unit ( mmBtu) on gross calorific value
( GCV) basis for six months, beginning October 1, from the current $ 4.66 per mmBtu, according to the oil ministry.
Holcim's machinery can handle 10 tonnes of material, processing it into an 8mm fuel with a high calorific value
. It is expected to begin turning shoes into power by September.