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loanwords and loan translations
English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
See loan translation.
tr.v. calqued, calque·ing, calques
To make a loan translation from (a word in another language).
[French, from calquer, to trace, copy, from Italian calcare, to press, from Latin calcāre, to tread on, from calx, heel.]
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
(Linguistics) another word for loan translation
vb, calques, calquing or calqued
(Art Terms) (tr) another word for calk3
[C20: from French: a tracing, from calquer, from Latin calcāre to tread]
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014
n., v. calqued, cal•quing. n.
2. to form (a word or phrase) through the process of loan translation.
[1655–65; < French, n. derivative of calquer to copy, base on]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
Past participle: calqued
Collins English Verb Tables © HarperCollins Publishers 2011
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|Noun||1.||calque - an expression introduced into one language by translating it from another language; "`superman' is a calque for the German `Ubermensch'"|
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
calque[kælk] N → calco m (on de)
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005