The electromagnetic isotope separators built at Oak Ridge derived from Lawrence's cyclotron concept; the term "calutron
" is a contraction of "California University Cyclotron." Hewlett and Anderson (1962, Chapter 5) and Parkins (2005) describe some of the daunting engineering challenges that were overcome in the design and development of these machines.
Scientists use it in gas-centrifuge and other enrichment processes and as a purging agent to remove industrial residues from centrifuges and calutron
Reviving parts of the ambitious Pahlavi nuclear programs, including a secret military research unit, Iran has imported questionable nuclear goods and dual-use items, e.g., limited calutron
technology from China.
PRC technicians built a calutron
, or electromagnetic isotope separation system, for enriching uraniumat the Karaj nuclear research facility, according to "confidential reports" submitted to Iranian President Rafsanjani by his senior aides, according to the London Sunday Telegraph (as reported in the September 25, 1995 Washington Times).
(12) This vast amount of energy was required to power the Y-12 where workers used calutrons
to refine uranium and at the K-25 plant where the uranium was enriched.
At least two properties of significance in Oak Ridge, the Y-12 Beta-3 Calutrons
and X-10 Graphite Reactor, would also remain for future generations under the proposed park.