The chain lines run horizontally, indicating an imposition pattern (common duodecimo), in which both the watermark and countermark
span the edges of two pages, and so are cut in half, and partially lost, even in regular binding; copies in later fine bindings may have been further cropped so that the countermark
is more or less invisible.
Eineder's examples lack the crescent countermark
that the Ricordi score has (see fig.
Joannes," and a hand emerging from a sleeve (?); the countermark
is "Caseau Besancon", and the dates 1778 and 1779.
An example of a half Sichuan rupee which bears a Chinese countermark
, from the collection of the late Gilbert Richardson, was illustrated by Gabrisch and Bertsch (1991) and has been reproduced in this article.
(18) In addition to the watermark, a countermark
may appear on the same sheet of paper on the opposite half of the sheet to the watermark itself.
The first and the sixth papers in table 2 are especially interesting: the 'Dutch Royall', no.1, with the countermark
RC has a description matching the paper in Purcell's score Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, Mu.
Rare words leave one kind of watermark in a text, function words serve as a countermark
; the distinctive locutions of the parallel-passage hunters of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries constitute another kind of trace; but what is most striking about the suspect parts of Titus Andronicus is the lazy repetition of a few common words the author has retrieved from his wordbox and keeps on reshuffling.
One bifolium bears a watermark and countermark
There are several papermakers using variations of this mark in the early eighteenth century, but the closest resemblance to the image, slogan, and the countermark
is found in item 133 listed by Churchill, dated to 1713, with the papermaker identified as J.
153 and 445): The provenance of this countermark
is not unknown: according to Cerny, Mss 17.105, fo 89 it was found during the campaign 1947/48 north of the temple.
(76.) The watermark depicts an eight-ray star and the countermark
of a doubled-lined W.