The first report about the Plucki locality was given by Sobolev (1912) and Czarnocki (in the 1920s, general geology field notes--unpublished until 1989), followed by Makowski (1963, 1971) and Dzik (1985) who described a rich goniatite fauna within black bituminous limestone.
Upper Devonian goniatites and co-occuring conodonts from the Holy Cross Mountains: studies of the Polish Geological Institute collections.
Palaeoecological and evolutionary significance of anatomically preserved terrestrial plants in Upper Carboniferous marine goniatite
Scientists found this out using 'zone fossils' called goniatites
. The great, great grandparents of the ammonites, they were small, shelled creatures related to squid and octopus but measuring less than five centimetres across.
(1980): Distribution comparee de conodontes et goniatites
devoniens des plaines du Dra, du Ma'der et du Tafilalt (Maroc).
Whereas in most cases it is difficult to identify the predator down to species in the fossil record, it is possible to narrow the list to a few suspects based on unique patterns left on the shell (e.g., circular punctures in Carboniferous goniatites
associated with the shark Symmorium) (Mapes & Hansen 1984).
Faunal assemblages are, in general, similar to those of European marine bands (Calver 1968), but are conspicuously lacking in stenohaline elements such as goniatites
; collectively, data suggest brackish salinities (Calder 1998).
The majority of classes and species which lived throughout the Paleozoic still existed: trilobites, fusulines, goniatites, tetracoralaria...
Among the ammonoids, the ceratites replaced the goniatites, the tetracoralaria gave way to the exacoralaria that currently continue to form the coral reefs, and other groups like trilobites and fusulines disappeared forever.