1 3 c) Most abundant plant species are typically heliophilous
, 1 including forage, exotic, and invasive crops, such as Baccharis spp., Vernonia spp., Gochnatia polymorpha, Peschieria fachsiaefolia, Guapira spp., Ricinus communis, Acacia spp., Gleichenia spp., Pteridium spp., etc.
The gradual decline in forest products and the changes in ecosystem structure, mediated by the emergence of heliophilous
species, favored the beginning of a new scenario characterized by expansion of livestock production systems.
Three families of butterflies can be easily distinguished from each other, as Nymphalidae have predominantly orange or pale brown colours, reduced forelegs, large, prominent knobs at the tips of their antennae; Papilionidae are diurnal and heliophilous
(sun loving), medium to large in size; Pieridae are predominantly white, creamy, yellow or light orange colours and are predominantly black or dark colours With distinct spots underside and upper side of wings.
In the stable stage of tiankeng development, the plant community is mainly composed of heliophilous
species owing to its adequate sunlight, drought bottom and the flat terrain (Fan 2014; Feng 2015).
grassland develops on edges of coastal rocky cliffs highly exposed to salt spray, at an altitude ranging between 10 and 30 m, on crystalline substrates (Fango valley) or on schist substrates (Cap Corse).
Syagrus romanzoffiana (cham.) Glassman is a heliophilous
species, selective hygrophilous and pioneer and has reaches 10-20 meters in height, and stipe with 20-30 cm in diameter and drupe type globular and oval-shape fruits with yellowish-orange pulp when ripe, fleshy and sweet (REIS, 2006; Genini et al., 2009).
These plants are heliophilous
and colonize areas where lack of water (drought) is mitigated in part by the high altitude recorded.
Many species are heliophilous
and require sunlight for thermoregulation (Amedegnato & Descamps 1978).
The PAR range was from 0.40-5.40 MJ/[m.sup.2]d and the area which the value was lower than 1.9 MJ/[m.sup.2]d need to plant shade-tolerant species, 1.90-2.90 MJ/[m.sup.2]d is better to plant the day-neutral species and over 2.90 MJ/[m.sup.2]d is good for the heliophilous
This has been explained by the large proportion of heliophilous
species among the acid tolerant species of these forest communities.
Understory species in juniper forest were more heliophilous
than those in spruce forest and included indicator species such as Potentilla parvifolia Fisch.
Even inside the REBIO Poco das Antas, forest cover was 57% in early stages, dominated predominantly by shrubs and small/young heliophilous
flood-tolerant trees (e.g.