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 (fĭl′ə-sŏf′, fē′lô-zôf′)
Any of the leading philosophical, political, and social writers of the 18th-century French Enlightenment.

[French, from Old French, philosopher; see philosopher.]
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


(ˈfɪləˌsɒf; ˌfɪləˈzɒf; French filɔzɔf)
1. (Philosophy) a prominent writer or philosopher during the time of the French Enlightenment in the 18th century
2. (Historical Terms) a prominent writer or philosopher during the time of the French Enlightenment in the 18th century
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014


(ˈfɪl əˌsɒf, ˌfɪl əˈzɒf; Fr. fi lɔˈzɔf)

n., pl. -sophes (-ˌsɒfs, -ˈzɒfs; Fr. -ˈzɔf)
a French intellectual or social philosopher of the 18th century, as Rousseau or Voltaire.
[1770–80; < French]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
Moreover, she introduced me to Hortense, who was a remarkable woman in her way, and known among us as Therese Philosophe.
"No, Monsieur le Philosophe. It would not have been better.
That afternoon the ladies entertained a good many of their compatriots--more than was usual for them to receive at one time; and the drawing-room on the ground floor of a large house on the Boulevard des Philosophes was very much crowded.
The shadow of autocracy all unperceived by me had already fallen upon the Boulevard des Philosophes, in the free, independent and democratic city of Geneva, where there is a quarter called "La Petite Russie." Whenever two Russians come together, the shadow of autocracy is with them, tinging their thoughts, their views, their most intimate feelings, their private life, their public utterances--haunting the secret of their silences.
She averted her head again and looked down the Boulevard des Philosophes, a singularly arid and dusty thoroughfare, where nothing could be seen at the moment but two dogs, a little girl in a pinafore hopping on one leg, and in the distance a workman wheeling a bicycle.
She would persist in pursuing him in there through the long days of motionless silence face to face with the empty Boulevard des Philosophes. She could not understand why he had not escaped--as so many other revolutionists and conspirators had managed to escape in other instances of that kind.
He bungles Clarence Alvord (first and last names), Robert Berkhofer, Alfred Crosby (four times), John Calhoun, Whitaker Chambers, Alvin Josephy, Adrienne Koch, Reinhold Niebuhr, the French philosophe Volney, and Michael Wallace (Walllace and Wallce on consecutive pages).
He admired and befriended Voltaire; for three years the French philosophe lived with Friedrich in Potsdam and Berlin.
Maintenant repetez le procede a la lumiere des paroles du celebre philosophe francais Jean-Jacques Rousseau: un lieu sacre y est depeint; un endroit ou la nature est seule monarque; un endroit que l'homme n'a pas encore exploite; un endroit ou la prosperite est mesuree selon la salubrite de l'air.
His overtures to d'Alembert, it is clear, were spurned, the celebrated philosophe having extended him a vague promise of assistance in the form of a minor position as tutor, a post which he then secured unceremoniously for another supplicant.(9) And despite the fact that Gilbert eventually managed to publish a small book of undistinguished verse in 1771, the Debut poetique, the work was greeted with philosophic indifference, `read by no one', Grimm's Correspondance litteraire later mocked, noting that its author had seemingly come to Paris to `make rhymes and die of hunger',(10) The author's lack of sympathy for Gilbert's plight characterized the uncharitable attitude of other of the philosophic brethren.
L'adaptabilite, notion empruntee a un Philosophe du XIXeme siecle (Herbert Spencer : 1820-1903) signifie que tout le monde doit s'adapter a la mondialisation et donc faire avec le neo-liberalisme.