France-based biopharmaceutical company Poxel SA (Euronext: POXEL - FR0012432516) has initiated a PK/PD study, which is part of the Phase 2a clinical programme for PXL770, a first-in-class direct adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase
activator, for the treatment of NASH, the company said.
AMP activated protein kinase
(AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor that can be activated by adding phosphate group as a consequence to metabolic stress that depletes ATP (contraction of muscle) or prevents ATP assembly (glucose deficiency, ischemia and hypoxia) and so increases the AMP:ATP ratio.3 It is known that AMPK inhibits mostly all anabolic activities which help cells proliferation and consequently inhibits tumor growth and development.4 Once motivated, p-AMPK controls energy-diminishing processes like cellular proliferation and stimulates energy producing reaction like lipid oxidation, glucose uptake and glycolysis.
Based on the molecule on which kinases act, they can be categorized as: protein kinase
, lipid kinase, carbohydrate kinase and other kinase (thymidine kinase and riboflavin kinase).
Seven genes with LRR receptor-like serine/threonine kinase that encode protein kinase
& LRR domain were classified into Class 4 and out of these seven genes, six have an additional malectin domain and based on a study, a malectin-like leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase in Arabidopsis contributes to downy mildew disease resistance (30).
The study, which was published July 2 in Nature Medicine, found that, in people with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, AMP-activated protein kinase
(AMPK) is lower in certain cells within the fibrotic regions of lung tissue.
ATI-450, an investigational drug, is a selective inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase
2 interface and an attractive candidate for stromal-targeted therapy.
She added:"Metformin upregulated activated protein kinase
(AMPK) in breast adenocarcinoma resulting in subsequent inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).
The [Ca.sup.2+]/calmodulin- (CaM-) dependent protein kinase
II (CaMKII) is an ideal regulator of synaptic plasticity because it has complex autoregulatory features that make it ideally suited for regulating activity-dependent plasticity [4-7].
CK2 Cellular Function in Normal and Disease States: Springer; 2015.
We also set out to understand the molecular mechanisms involving the activity of the insulin receptor (IR), the IR substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1/2), the phosphoinositol-3-kinase protein (PI3K), and protein kinase
B (Akt/PKB), and the regulation of glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) in response to acute and chronic resistance exercise.
Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago found that these tumours' growth and tendency to metastasize are regulated by a protein kinase
called Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), which is increased in AT/RT.
The acquired ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein kinase
inhibitor program covers two clinical-stage compounds, VX-970 and VX-803.