In this postmodern adaptation, the agency of the female characters disrupts or resists traditional phallocentric scopophilia
, or pleasure derived from looking, while foregrounding female desire; therefore, demonstrating an alternative way of contesting the patriarchal culture surrounding its production.
The scene thus supports Andrea Mirabile's assertion that vision, in D'Annunzio's work, "has often erotic and violent overtones, as scopophilia
mingles with both spiritual contemplation and sadistic eroticism" (Mirabile, 2013: 128), just as the use of the alliterative "candido cadavere" renders this link between aesthetics and violence all the more clear.
Hulme's Bergsonian aesthetic then arrives at a notion of poetic visuality as a libidinous, urgent scopophilia
, piercing the veil of appearances to reach the thing-in-itself; tellingly, the subjects of his poetry are often of the opposite sex: "The flounced edge of a skirt,/ recoiling like waves off a cliff" (Jones 49).
Mulvey relates Freud's connection to scopophilia
and erogenous zones to the act of looking.
She appropriated, then, Freudian concepts such as scopophilia
and voyeurism, to try to understand the male gaze.
In her account in "Visual Pleasure," Mulvey wrote that Freud "associated scopophilia
with taking other people as objects, subjecting them to a controlling and curious gaze" (8, my italics).
In anticipation of this undesirable response, the body of the heroine is often subjected to 'festishistic scopophilia
Laity draws Mulvey into her approach to teaching scopophilia
through the films of Dario Argento in her essay, "A Raven's Eye View: Teaching Scopophilia
with Dario Argento." Laity engages Clover and Mulvey, but also brings in Clover's "Final Girl" as a means of moving students past their reliance on narrative analysis to strengthen their usually weak visual analysis; she also points out several forms of resistance students exhibit in engaging and critiquing gender and objectification in horror, but emphasizes how the slippage between where the male ends and female begins helps students to understand a variety of theories, especially Laura Mulvey and Linda William's, and subjective positions within these films.
She refused to rehearse the woman's body, so as not to fetishize it or foster male scopophilia
(6) Her work is a feminist take on that of Christian Metz who theorized the production of desire in cinema, what he calls voyeurism or scopophilia
. While I do not deny that Bollywood filmmakers are masters at manipulation and that most, if not all, Bollywood films could function as textbook examples of the "male gaze" and "scopophilia
", many films are complex enough to inspire multiple interpretations and audience responses.
Thus, the director never wants the canero to enter the camera's racialized scopophilia
, but she also always has him in her scope.