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Planes flying above the cloud level in the upper troposphere not only release carbon dioxide but also another potent greenhouse gas, water vapour.
The team from Montana State University (MSU) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado, has created five diode-based micro-pulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instruments--MPD instruments, for short--for profiling water vapour in the lower troposphere, the region of the atmosphere where most weather occurs.
They found that two of the samples (PMO-1 and PMO-3) originated from a wildfire in Quebec and traveled to Pico in the free troposphere, while the third (PMO-2) came from low-level flow off North America and was transported in the marine boundary layer.
Lelieveld at Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz and co-workers say they have now for the first time performed chemistry measurements by sampling the summer monsoon outflow in the upper troposphere (between 9 and 15 km altitude).
<br />TPVs occur in the upper troposphere of the Arctic, but the data doesn't exist from this barren region to improve prediction.
Bacteria and viruses get swept into the atmosphere from both land and water surfaces around the world, and are carried to the free troposphere. The troposphere is the layer of atmosphere that starts from the surface and extends to about 18 kilometers up.
In a stratosphere, temperature increases with altitude--unlike the troposphere below it, where the temperature drops the higher you go.
The medium of propagation for both analogue and digital terrestrial television is the troposphere, where most weather phenomena occur [1].
Above the middle troposphere, including the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere (UTLS) at 5~20 km, the water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) is 2~4 times lower than in the lower troposphere.