improver (VII) [1, 2], pour-point depressants (PPD) [3, 4], anti-wear (AW) [5, 6], antioxidant , detergent-dispersant , emulsifiers, demulsifiers etc.
More recently, a second generation of OSP's, OSP High Viscosity Index
(OSP HVI), has been developed with an even higher VI and enhanced low temperature properties [11, 12], offering another level of high performance lubricant.
Nomenclature TAN: Total acid number TBN: Total base number ICPAES: Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer FBT: Four-ball tribotester WSD: Wear scar diameter EP: Extreme pressure SEM: Scanning electron microscope VI: Viscosity index
[[mu].sub.0]: Dynamic viscosity [T.sub.A]: Absolute temperature n: Power law index [mu]: Coefficient of friction [rho]: Density at 15[degrees]C [v.sub.40]: Kinematic viscosity at 40[degrees]C [v.sub.100]: Kinematic viscosity at 100[degrees]C Multiple R: Coefficient of multiple correlations [R.sup.2]: Coefficient of determination SS: Sum of squares df: Degree of freedom MS: Mean squared Residual MS: Mean squared error SS Residual: Residual sum of squares SS Total: Total sum of squares.
"Our best-performing materials show a sufficiently high viscosity index
along with much better friction properties than our benchmarks," Cosimbescu added.
Table 4 reflects the indication of kinematic viscosity (c.s.t), viscosity (cp) at 40[degrees]C and 100[degrees]C, viscosity index
(VI) and pour point as measured biolubricant standard.
The viscosity index
was calculated using the ISO 2909:2002 method.
Especially in the Middle East, where temperatures can rise very high, the Viscosity Index
of these naphthenic oils render proper cooling for the important assets that are the transformers and they deliver great oxidation stability in this harsh climate.
[PO.sub.o] has kinematic viscosity about 45.9 cSt (40[degrees]C) and 9.4 cSt (100[degrees]C) with viscosity index
of 195 .
* High viscosity index
to help ensure minimum viscosity change when variations in temperature occur.
They provide thermal and oxidation stability, high viscosity index
, high flash point, low pour point, and hydrolytic stability while protecting against rust, oxidation and foaming.
Various data can be computed from the MSD curve, such as the Elasticity Index (El), the Solid-Liquid Balance (SLB), and the Macroscopic Viscosity Index
The joint venture plant produces premium quality VHVI (Very High Viscosity Index
) Group III base oils for use in blending top-tier lubricants and has a production capacity of 400,000 metric t/a.